By Armando Carlos de Pina Filho
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Additional resources for Biped Robots
Forward dynamics refers to the solution of the equations to compute the dynamic response to the imposed excitations, and is typically done using a standard procedure such as the Runge Kutta algorithm (which is the one we used). Inverse dynamics is the computation of the excitation necessary to achieve a certain prescribed motion, and is described in the next subsection. The initial choice of parameters is such that they are close to the physical system. Later some parameters are varied so that the dependence of the path on the parameters can be veriﬁed.
1997) and Roussel et al. (98) bifurcation and chaos are studied and the dependence of the gait on the slope is explained. Asano, Luo & Yamakita (2004) use energy-based control laws to enable the biped to mimic the passive motion; they analyze a biped without torso and knees. Asano, Yamakita, Kamamichi & Luo (2004), Kim & Oh (2004), Paul et al. (2003), Silva & Machado (2001) and Goswami (1999) are some more of the innovative attempts to build a simple yet controllable walking machine. Although passive dynamic walking is efﬁcient, simple to implement and analyze, the step length and the velocity of motion of the passive biped are greatly dependent on the system parameters.
Each path proﬁle has a corresponding torque and external energy associated with it. In this work the path proﬁle that minimizes the external energy input is found and the corresponding torque is applied. A biped is built to implement and test the effect of torso on the biped motion. The biped walks only down the slopes. The legs are not actuated externally. Different torques are input to the Optimal Biped Design Using a Moving Torso: Theory and Experiments 37 biped to make it walk with a required step length.