By Dimitrios P. Nikolelis, Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli
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Additional info for Biosensors for Security and Bioterrorism Applications
Anal Chem 74:1565–1571 36. Miyaguchi H, Tokeshi M, Kikutani Y, Hibara A, Inoue H, Kitamori T (2006) Microchip-based liquid-liquid extraction for gas-chromatography analysis of amphetamine-type stimulants in urine. J Chromatogr A 1129:105–110 37. Tokeshi M, Minagawa T, Kitamori T (2000) Integration of a microextraction system on a glass chip: ion-pair solvent extraction of Fe(II) with 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinedisulfonic acid and tri-n-octylmethylammonium chloride. Anal Chem 72:1711–1714 38.
New Routes in the High-Throughput Screening of Toxic Proteins … 39 These ﬁndings emerged the need for assays that could be used in the ﬁeld and that allow rapid detection of BoNTs. The reference method for detecting BoNTs continues to be the mouse lethality assay because it is a highly sensitive functional assay that directly measures the amount of toxic BoNT, despite of its well-known limitations. Foremost, this assay usually requires 24–48 h to yield results. However, antibody therapy is most efﬁcient when given before the clinical signs of botulism, which can occur less than 12 h after exposure.
Rapid flow proves an advantage here as it promotes flow stabilisation, whereas slow flow is known to lead to segmentation . Creation of distinct contralateral hydrophobic and hydrophilic flow surfaces also can provide stabilising pinning contacts for an organic and aqueous liquid, respectively. One hydrophobic surface modiﬁer is organosilane on glass ; this has proved useful in protecting flow stratiﬁed, non-segmented flow. However, the approach does require a selective pre-deposition of the silane surface modiﬁer, and a rather complex, ridged, channel design was necessitated to avoid channel crossover during surface treatment.