Biochemistry & Genetics: PreTest Self-Assessment & Review by Golder Wilson

By Golder Wilson

Offers clinical scholars 500 questions, solutions, and reasons to arrange for the biochemistry and genetics sections of the USMLE Step 1. the hot version contains many new questions within the two-step scientific structure to simulate the USMLE Step 1.

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Sample text

Replication is inhibited in cells until the pyrimidine dimers are removed. Removal of the damaged areas occurs in two ways. The process can be simply reversed by a photoreactivating enzyme that cleaves the dimers and yields the original bases. Blue light is required for this. Alternatively, the dimer is removed. A UV-specific excinuclease nicks the dimer on its 5′ side. DNA polymerase I replicates the damaged sequence, while the damaged sequence swings out. Finally, the damaged piece is hydrolyzed by the 5′ to 3′ exonuclease activity of the DNA polymerase I.

The DNA strands (nucleotide polymers) are joined by linkages between the 3′-hydroxyl of each pentose (deoxyribose) and the 5′-phosphate of its deoxyribose neighbor. Each strand composing the double helix is different and antiparallel. The 3′ end of one strand is opposite the 5′ end of its complement and vice versa (see the figure above). It is this complementary nature of DNA that allows the strands to be templates for one another during DNA replication. qxd 11/14/01 10:36 AM Page 23 DNA Structure, Replication, and Repair Answers 23 Relationship between chromosomal DNA (haploid genome of 3 × 109 bp distributed among 23 chromosomes) and mRNA [average gene length 20,000 bp, yielding a mature RNA of 2,000 nucleotides (nt) after introns (gray areas) are removed by splicing].

E. Only site of binding of RNA polymerase III Promoter for all RNA polymerases Termination site for RNA polymerase II Major binding site of RNA polymerase I First site of binding of a transcription factor for RNA polymerase II 45. The so-called caps of RNA molecules a. b. c. d. e. qxd 11/14/01 10:37 AM Page 41 Gene Expression 41 46. In bacterial RNA synthesis, the function of factor ρ is to a. b. c. d. e. Bind catabolite repressor to the promoter region Increase the rate of RNA synthesis Eliminate the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter Participate in the proper termination of transcription Allow proper initiation of transcription 47.

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