Atmospheric Pollution. Its History, Origins and Prevention by A. R. Meetham

By A. R. Meetham

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Example text

Dry gas" is that which contains only a slight amount of these hydrocarbons. Natural gasolne is obtained from wet gas by such methods as compression and cooling; absorption; absorption and low temperature separation. "Liquified petroleum gas" is the fraction of wet gas, mainly butane and isobutane (C4H10, normal boiling-point -0-5°C and -11*7°C), which can safely be transported in the liquid state under pressure in steel cylinders. Natural gas can be used for practically any heating purpose and is easily distributed through a system of pressure mains, but in oil fields far away from industrial regions the gas is still largely burnt to waste quite apart from the loss at new wells before the flow is controlled.

The third method has already been found effective in America. As a result of research now in hand by the British Central Electricity Generating Board and other bodies there is a good hope not only that mist from cooling towers will be prevented but that their general efficiency will be improved. As a fourth alternative, a heat exchanger can be used in which the water is retained inside the heat exchanger and heat is lost to tha rising air current across a solid boundary by condution, with the air rising naturally or with the help of blowers.

On the charging stroke, the piston acts as a pump, sucking the mixture of air and fuel into the cylinder through the inlet valve. On the return stroke it compresses and adiabatically warms the mixture, which is then ignited. A rapid rise in temperature and pressure results and the working stroke begins, during which the mixture of gases expands and partly cools. On the return from this stroke the exhaust valve is opened, and the piston drives out the spent gases. The exhaust valve closes and the cycle is repeated.

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