By David A. Peterson
This publication offers the 1st systematic typological research of applicatives throughout African, American Indian, and East Asian languages. it's also the 1st to handle their capabilities in discourse, the derivation in their semantic and syntactic homes, and the way and why they've got replaced over the years.
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Extra info for Applicative Constructions (Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory)
Usually signals the addition of a speciWcally malefactive or allative object. A verb–hno? complex, however, is rarely given such a simple interpretation. -hno? also usually indicates some kind of malice or harmful intent on the part of the subject towards the object it introduces, violent action, etc. Some examples are seen in (36)–(38), the last of which is from connected text. n-hno? ’ (37) rul¼ni? a? -hno? ii then 3p poss-father deic 3sS-direc-3sO-Xy2-mal¼conn ‘Then it [a tiger] pounced on their father and .
The set of applicative constructions attested in a single language is its system or family of applicative constructions. Finally, when a single applicative marker refers to multiple thematic participant types (regardless of whether or not these participants are treated identically in terms of morphosyntax), I will refer to the construction as a generalized applicative. With these terminological conventions in mind, we can move on to the next chapter, which surveys morphosyntactic and semantic variation in applicative constructions from a broader cross-linguistic perspective.
It is likely that instrumental applicatives were originally marked by the etymological causative marker (a stage still attested in parts of Bantu). When this use of the causative marker was lost in some languages, what is today recognized as the applicative assumed this function. I examine the motivations for these developments in Peterson (1999a). 46 Applicative Constructions b. kay-ma? a? ’ (8) Instrumental applicative a. ’ b. ’ The other applicative constructions in Hakha Lai, on the other hand, do not have clear paraphrases in which the applicative object is expressed as an oblique.