An Introduction to Genetic Analysis by Jeffrey H. Miller

By Jeffrey H. Miller

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44200_02_p27-72 3/2/04 11:37 AM Page 34 34 Chapter 2 • Patterns of Inheritance F1 ϫ Y/ y y/y Gamete production all y 1 2 1 2 1 Y 2 Predicted progeny ratio is 1 y/y y 1 2 Y/ y :1 Figure 2-8 The cross of a presumed heterozygote Y/y to a presumed homozygous recessive y/y produces progeny in the ratio 1 : 1. The concept of equal segregation has been given formal recognition as Mendel’s first law: The two members of a gene pair segregate from each other into the gametes; so half the gametes carry one member of the pair and the other half of the gametes carry the other member of the pair.

Halving of gene pairs in gametes. Each gamete carries only one member of each gene pair. In order to be expressed in later generations, obviously the alleles must find their way into the gametes — the eggs and sperm. However, to prevent the number of genes from doubling every time gametes fused, he had to propose that during gamete formation the gene pair halved. 4. Equal segregation. The members of the gene pairs segregate (separate) equally into the gametes. The key word “equal” means that 50% of the gametes will carry one member of a gene pair, and 50% will carry the other.

We could represent the situation as follows, where dark blue indicates normal wild-type DNA sequence and red with the letter X represents altered sequence resulting in nonfunctional enzyme: Wild-type allele AЈ Mutant allele aЈ Mutant allele aЈЈ Mutant allele aЈЈЈ x x x When geneticists use the symbol A to represent a wild-type allele, it means one specific sequence of DNA. But when they use the symbol a to represent a recessive allele, it is a shorthand that can represent any one of the possible types of damage that can lead to nonfunctional recessive alleles.

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